The Prehistoric Period (प्रागैतिहासिक काल) | SSC CGL History Notes | Ancient History

The Prehistoric Period (प्रागैतिहासिक काल)

The Prehistoric Period

Stone Age (पाषाण युग )

·         This was the age when the early man began to use stones for practical purposes is called the Stone age.
     यह वह समय था, जब आदिमानव ने व्यावहारिक उद्देश्यों के लिए पत्थरों का उपयोग करना शुरु किया, जिसे पाषाण काल कहा जाता है।

·         Stone Age is divided into three broad divisions-
     पाषाण काल को तीन व्यापक विभाजनों में विभाजित किया गया है -

1.    Paleolithic Age or Old Stone Age (पुरापाषाण युग) (Unknown - 8000 BC)
2.    Mesolithic Age or Middle Stone Age (8000 BC- 4000 BC)
3.    Neolithic Age (4000 BC- 2500 BC)

Palaeolithic Age

·         In this period, the man barely managed to gather his food and lived on hunting.
·         The art of hunting and stalking wild animals individually and later in groups led to these people making stone weapons and tools.
·         These kinds of tools were generally used to kill small animals and for tearing flesh from the carcass of the hunted animals.
·         These tools are characteristics of the Paleolithic Age and were very rough.
·         The Paleolithic period is divided into three phases.
1.    Lower Paleolithic Period
2.    Middle Palaeolithic Period
3.    Upper Palaeolithic Period.
·         Important Paleolithic sites: Bhimbetka (Madhya Pradesh), Hunsgi, Kurnool Caves, Narmada Valley (Hathnora, Madhya Pradesh), Kaladgi Basin.

Mesolithic Age

·         In the Mesolithic Age, the stone tools began to be made more pointed and sharp.
·         To ensure a life that had an abundance of food and clothing, the stone tools began to appear in an increasingly specialized way.
·         Apart from hand axes, they also produced crude, stone-tipped wooden spears, borers, and burns.
·         This period also saw the domestication of animals and cultivation of wild varieties of crops.
·         Because of farming, small settlements began to take shape.
·         Archaeological excavation has unearthed Mesolithic sites in Chotta Nagpur area of central India and the areas in the south of the River Krishna.
·         The fire was started to be produced.

Neolithic Age

·         Neolithic Age (4000 BC- 2500BC) or New Stone Age was the last phase f Stone Age and is characterized by very finely flaked small stone tools, also known as blades and burns.
·         Neolithic Age also saw the domestication of cattle, horses, and other farm animals.
·         An important invention of this time was the wheel.
·         The fire was started to be produced.

Chalcolithic Phase

·         Towards the end of the Neolithic period, metals like bronze and copper began to be used.
·         This was the Chalcolithic phase (1800 BC- 1000 BC).
·         Some of the sites of this era are Brahmgiri and Navada Toli.

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