Parliament of India | Indian Polity

parliament of india

Parliament of India | Indian Polity


Introduction

  • The Parliament is the legislative organ of the Central government.
  • Indian Parliament follows the 'Westminster model of government'.
  • Articles 79 to 122 in Part V of the Indian Constitution deals with the composition, organization, duration, powers, privileges and so on of the Parliament.
  • The Parliament of India consists of 3 parts: the President, the Council of States and the House of People.
  • The Hindi names 'Rajya Sabha' and 'Lok Sabha' were adopted in 1954, by the Council of States and the House of People.
  • The Rajya Sabha is the Upper House (Second Chamber or House of Elders) and the Lok Sabha is the Lower House (First Chamber or Popular Chamber)
  • The President of India is not a member of either House of Parliament and he/she does not sit in the Parliament to attend its meetings but he/she is an integral part of the Parliament. Because when a bill passed by both the Houses of Parliament cannot become law without the President's assent.

  • Rajya Sabha

  • The 4th Schedule of the Indian Constitution deals with the allocation of seats in Rajya Sabha to the States and Union Territories.
  • The maximum strength of the Rajya Sabha is fixed at 250 members, out of which, 238 are to be representatives of the Union Territories and the States, which are elected indirectly and 12 members are nominated by the President of India.
  • At present, the Rajya Sabha has 245 members, out of which, 229 members represent the State, 4 members represent the Union Territories and 12 members are nominated by the President.
  • In Rajya Sabha, the elected members of state legislative assemblies elected the representatives of states.
  • The election is held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote.
  • On the basis of population, the seats are allotted to the states in Rajya Sabha. Hence, the number of representatives varies from state to states. For example, Uttar Pradesh has 31 members, Maharastra has 19 members while Sikkim has 1 member only.
  • Delhi and Puducherry are the only two, out of seven Union Territories which has seats in the Rajya Sabha. Delhi has 3 members and Puducherry has 1 member.
  • The representatives of each union territory in the Rajya Sabha are indirectly elected by members of the electoral college specially constituted for the purpose. The election is also held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote.
  • The population of other five union territories are too small to have any representative in the Rajya Sabha.
  • 12 members are nominated by the President of India to the Rajya Sabha from people who have special knowledge or practical experience in literature, art, science, and social service.
  • The Rajya Sabha first constituted in 1952 and it is a continuing chamber, that is, it is a permanent body and not subject to dissolution. Howe, ver members retire every year and their seats are filled up by new members. The retiring members are eligible for re-election and renomination any number of times.
  • The Constitution has not fixed the office tenure of members of the Rajya Sabha and left it to the Parliament.
  • The Parliament in the Representation of the People Act of 1951, provided that the office tenure of a member of Rajya Sabha shall be six years.

  • Lok Sabha

  • The maximum strength of the Lok Sabha is fixed at 552 members. Out of this 530 are to be the representative of the states, 20 are to the representative of the union territories and 2 are to be nominated by the President from the Anglo-Indian community.
  • At present, the Lok Sabha has 545 members. Out of these, 530 members represent the states, 13 represent the union territories and 2 Anglo-Indians, which are nominated by the President of India if the community is not adequately represented in the Lok Sabha.
  • Each state is divided into territorial constituencies for the purpose of holding direct elections to the Lok Sabha.
  • The members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected by the people from the territorial constituencies in the states. And also, by the Direct Election to the House of the People Act, 1965, the members of Lok Sabha from the union territories are also chosen by direct elections.
  • The election is based on the principle of universal adult franchise.
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